The Black Death opened up new economic opportunities for peasants and formed a new middle class made up of artisans. The farmers that broke away were able to enjoy a new job that they enjoyed such as art and literature. The Hundred Years War began the modernization of state building and it made more room for social mobility. Power also became more centralized. The crisis in the Catholic Church paved the way for scholasticism and more secularizing of art. 3. The Black Death changed the social structure after the many deaths and the surplus of farmers who moved to the cities to become artisans.
The Hundred Years War put tension politically between England and France that would affect wars later on. The church moving from Italy to France and refocusing the center of religion changed the demographic structure. Unit II 1. The Renaissance differed from the Late Middle Ages because it focused a lot on art and learning. Humanism, which led to many going away from the church and become secular, spread across Europe with the help of many intellectuals. Also the fact that the Renaissance was a period without as much feudalism because of the Black Death is significant because the individual could focus on himself or herself. . The idea of Humanism affected Renaissance art because it broke away from the traditional Christian settings and characters and relied more on basic people and their emotions. Humanism changed how society viewed itself and made it more individual-centered. Leonardo da Vinci is one artist who painted the Mona Lisa, by developing the technique of sfumato. Another artist is Michelangelo Buonarroti who sculpted David, which glorified the human body by making it into a contrapposto stance and made the facial expressions individualistic and emotional.
Albrecht Durer is a Northern Renaissance artist who painted many self-portraits which shows how he values himself as well. 3. Women now had increased access to education but they also lost status and became ornaments to their husbands. There were sexual double standards; women had to stay chaste while men could do whatever they wanted to. Although there were women like Christine de Pisan or Isabella d’Este, their roles were to marry and have children. 4. Machiavelli’s ideas, found in The Prince, outline what a prince should do to rule his country.
He states that the ends must justify the means and that for rulers, it is better to be feared than to be loved. They have greatly influenced future rulers to be stricter on their people. Unit III 1. The causes of the Protestant Reformation were the corruption of the church, revivals of ancient text, and humanism. The corruptions of the church such as the sale of indulgences, simony, pluralism and other deeds caused the people to become wary of the church. Humanism caused many people to criticize the church and question the validity of the bible.
Though tensions about the church had been growing over the past few centuries, they escalated during this time, causing the Protestant Reformation. 2. The Reformation changed the world religiously, politically, economically, and socially. It changed it religiously by separating countries and the people by different religions, when before the reformation they were united under one. New religions sprouted out and grew away from Catholicism. It changed it politically because the rulers now had a stand on which religion to practice.
It changed it socially because many of the lower classes converted into Protestantism because it was more favorable to them while many of the nobility stayed Catholic. 3. The status of women and children in European society was changed by the Reformation, somewhat. A woman’s main job was to stay at home and take care of the family, but marriage became more compassionate. Emphasis on education and literary rates rose during this time, thanks to intellectuals. As for Protestant women, their opportunities to help in the church, such as becoming a nun, lessened. 4.
The extent the Catholic Church succeeded in achieving its goals during the Counter Reformation was pretty good. They basically re-affirmed past beliefs and reformed the institutions so that no corruption could be done and that the clergy would be properly educated. Although the unity of western Christianity was shattered, religious enthusiasm was rekindled within the people. A new religious order called the Jesuits also helped many people get back into Catholicism. 5. The voyages of exploration were motivated the idea of riches, such as gold or silver, but many wanted to find a new route to the silk and spice trades.
The Ottoman Empire blocked two very major routes and so Europe had to find new routes to Asia. They changed the world by coming home with knowledge of newfound land and also spread diseases and food from one place to another. 6. Politics and economics were related in the commercial revolution. The Commercial Revolution was a period of European expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism. It was related to politics because many countries fought over trade routes. Whoever controlled one route, would form alliances with other countries making it a strong, defended nation.
It is related to economics as well, because with the vast trade markets and monopolies, it helped many countries gain wealth and eventually power. Unit V 1. Divine right is the belief that God placed the king on the throne. Many used this as the basis of power for an absolutist rule. Although its legitimacy can’t be proven, people such as Bossuet helped monarchs achieve that power, such as Louis XIV. 2. The Treaty of Westphalia ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany as a renewal of the Peace of Augsburg except it added Calvinism.
It failed to help Europe experience peace in the years following because Germany was now devastated and further divided. Also France began to gain power, which led to many wars such as the French Revolution and etc. 3. Mercantilism is the economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and the security of the state. It was a cause of frequent European wars and motivated colonial expansion. It started the slave trade. They spread diseases, killed many natives, plundered riches, and introduced ifferent foods and animals. 4. Austria, Prussia, France, Russia, and England emerged as the strongest powers during the age of absolutism because of the fall of the three aging empires, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, and Polish Kingdom. Absolute rulers, such as Frederick William I of Prussia, ruled as a response to the crises of the 16th and 17th centuries because the people needed order. Their armies and military were very developed and strong as well. 5. The methods that absolute monarchs used to maintain their control were to strengthen their military and change the bureaucracy.
They also demanded absolute obedience and discipline from civil servants, because promotions were based on merit. They also educated their people more, even the lower classes. Monarchs also extended their rule over local law and revenues and replaced local nobles with ones faithful to the king. 6. Absolutism is based on sovereignty. An absolute ruler, like a king or queen, governs by decree. They were placed on the throne by god, and the people have no say in those decrees and no right of appeal. Constitutionalism, however, is based on agreed laws, not decree. It relies on a balance of government power and the rights of the people as well.