Background and Methodology of the Research Process- Childhood Obesity

Published: 2021-09-29 14:05:04
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Category: Childhood, Childhood Obesity

Type of paper: Essay

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For some time there has been a largely growing concern about the junk food made available in schools and how it contributes to childhood obesity. In this article it is discovered through research among fifth graders that the junk food that is available in schools does not significantly increase the BMI or obesity of these students. This research was aided from the amount of junk food available and the amount purchased. Problem to Solve The problem that this article focuses on is childhood obesity.
Childhood obesity in the United States is highest it has ever been with practically one-third of all children and adolescents considered overweight or obese (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). Therefore most of the focus has been on the schools in hopes to find this as the cause of the epidemic. There has been debates on the nutritional value of schools competitive foods and believe them to be the largest source of junk food. Purpose It seems as though the purpose of this study is to inform or let the reader know about the statistics behind childhood obesity and the junk food available at schools.
They may have wanted the reader to be aware of the risks of childhood obesity that comes directly from the foods that their child may be buying from the schools vending machines or from the a la carte options. This is believed to truly not be the reasons for the increase in obesity of children. This articles purpose is to make it aware that it could also come from what they are eating outside the schools and what type of exercise they are getting (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). Competitive foods can be found in many schools, there is a difference in what is available to elementary, middle and high schools. 7% of high schools and 82% of middle schools have vending machines that students have access to, but in elementary schools there is only 17% that have vending machines. A la carte options are also a huge source of food sales. These a la carte lines are largely available in all grade levels, with 93% availability in high school, 92% in middle school, and a surprising 71% in elementary schools (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). Research Question A research question is basically the first step that a researcher must conduct before starting the research.

It is known as the methodological point and any questions that are asked should be answered during the research (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). It should be defined clearly as well as accurately. It can be used for qualitative and quantitative research. This step allows the researcher to figure out what he or she wants to know the most (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). This article did clearly state a question, these questions were for the fifth graders asking them what they are eating at school and at home or what type of exercise they are getting.
A study was done in the fall on 1998 of kindergarten, and in the spring another was conducted on first, third, and fifth graders. This study got information from the kids, their parents, and the teachers. They collected information on their social, emotional, physical development, BMI, and their environment in and out of school. The only information that was used was that of the fifth graders. The study was taken in 2003-2004 school year from 9,380 fifth graders in both private and public schools. In the questionnaire they were asked about how often and how much of a certain food they ate during the past week.
The kids were also asked to include any food that they also ate outside of school, including if they may have went to a friend’s house or to a restaurant. School administration and the children of the fifth grade gave information on the availability of junk food within the schools. The administrators stated that an average of 17 junk food items were available through vending machines, the school stores, snack bar, or from the a la carte that the children can purchase. Hypothesis A research hypothesis is a statement created by the researcher, and it is a speculation of what they believe the outcome will be.
This article does not have a hypothesis directly stated; the authors only provide statistics within each paragraph. If there were to be a hypothesis it would state that the food did or did not cause the obesity of the children or if it were a direct result of their home lives and not just the schools fault (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). Independent and Dependent Variables An independent and dependent variable are two different variables. An independent variable is a variable that can be wielded by the researcher. It s basically a hypothesized to influence or affect the dependent variable. The independent variable is measured from the researcher. The researcher assigns an experimental or a controlled condition to the participants. The independent variables would be the surveys and what they say prior to the participants taking the survey (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). The dependent variables would be the participants that partake in the research. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework is used in research to give details or to create an outline of what the possible actions may be.
It is used to try and connect the aspects of the topic. The theoretical framework that was conducted in this article was what the relationship between a parent’s perception of their child’s BMI and obesity and what the school’s role is in preventing as well as treating the children’s obesity issues. (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). Literature Review Literature review is important because it allows the researcher to discover what has already been discovered and what has not. It gives them a chance to create a research strategy that works best for them.
It gives them a chance to avoid other researcher’s mistakes. Instead of surveying the school nurses or random people, the researchers in this article asked the fifth grade children how they felt and what they feel is important to keep children on a healthy track so that they do not become obese (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). Study Design There are many research designs that can be used. Descriptive design, correlation studies, semi-experimental designs, experimental designs, reviewing other research, and test study before conducting full-scale study.
This article is more of a descriptive design because it was based off surveys (Datar, A, & Nicosia, N 2012). In schools students have access to so many foods and drinks that are full of sodium and sugars. These children can purchase things like candies, chocolate, cookies, salty snacks, and even ice cream. They also have access to drinks that are nothing but sugars and caffeine. Many of these children are consuming more junk food outside of the schools then they are within the schools and are not getting the proper xercise they need to burn all those extra calories they are consuming. The schools cannot give children all the physical activity that they need in a day. Children need to also be active outside of school because the little activity that they get while in school is not enough for any child to keep their BMI down. I do know that there are more and more schools that are removing the junk food from the vending machines or making that these vending machines are only in use during thinks like sporting events or other after school activities.
Childhood obesity is a growing issue, and there are many contributions to this problem. Children spend much of their lives at school, so changing the ways that schools handle health issues is important. By removing vending machines, providing more healthy programs, and allowing more physical activities can be a positive start. What the children learn in school can be brought into their home lives and when the school nurses, parents, and children are all on the same page healthier changes might start to show and the level of childhood obesity may start to decrease.

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